RULES OF THE ROAD AT SEA PDF

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Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, .. These Rules shall apply to all vessels upon the high seas and in all waters connected. The International Rules in this book were formalized in the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, , and became. These are in effect, the nautical alternative to the highway code. As a user of the Waterway you will interact with other craft and will have to react accordingly.


Rules Of The Road At Sea Pdf

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THE RULES OF THE ROAD sea or asked at the oral examinations for the certificate of competency. The rules, explanations and model answers are. (a) These rules shall apply to all vessels upon the high seas and in all waters . ( iii) the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other sources of. Abbreviated Guide To Navigation Rules Of the Road. Based on the Navigation Rules International – Inland (Commandant Instruction MD, ).

If Rule 5 were to be obeyed to the letter, it would be prudent to have one person on watch on the bridge wing, to assist the OOW whose view is inhibited by the superstructure. Any prescription spectacles should be worn and kept clean. However it should be noted that carrying a pair of binoculars on board, is not a requirement under any existing IMO legislation.

Also note that Rule 5 says a lookout should be kept by hearing. On some older ships, this could be problematic, since your own Bridge Superstructure and possibly engine noise by way of the sounds coming from the funnel exhaust noise might drown out all but the loudest sounds.

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It is therefore prudent to try and keep one of the bridge wing doors open the leeward one is a good bet if at all possible. For those who sail on ships with a totally enclosed bridge, how do they obey Rule 5? Remember that the intensity and direction of sound is particularly difficult to judge.

Noise travels further over water, and the deeper the pitch, the less easy it is to estimate where it is coming from. Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions. In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among those taken into account: a By all vessels: i the state of visibility; ii the traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or any other vessels; iii the manoeuvrability of the vessel with special reference to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing conditions; iv at night the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from back-scatter of her own lights; v the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of navigational hazards; vi the draught in relation to the available depth of water.

This Rule is another one of the important Rules. Paragraphs a and b and their sub-paragraphs are self-explanatory. However, the main body of the rule may need some further explanation. Every vessel: This point may have special significance with respect to vessels constrained by their draught CBD or restricted in their ability to manoeuvre RAM , which may not be justified in maintaining a high speed when other vessels are in close proximity, because of their limited manoeuvrability.

Safe Speed: This is intended to be a used in a relative sense. If a ship is involved in a collision, it does not necessarily follow that she was going too fast. In clear visibility, collisions can generally be attributed to a bad lookout or to wrong decisions and actions subsequent to detection, rather than to a high speed. At all times: A relatively high speed might be accepted as being initially safe for a vessel using radar in Restricted Visibility in open waters, provided prompt action is taken to bring the speed down, when radar information shows this to be necessary.

Remember, as OOW, the engines are at your disposal and you do not necessarily need to call the Master first. However, timely warning to the ER should be given whenever possible. Proper and Effective Action: A vessel may be unable to take proper and effective action due to the speed being too high, or in some circumstances, too low.

There are some acronyms, which may help you to remember the order and important words of both paragraphs a and b of this Rule. These are better discussed in class or on board ship, rather than printed! If there is any doubt, such risk shall be deemed to exist. It is easy to get much closer to other vessels than you intend, if care is not exercised. If you were stationary and all others were moving around you, it would be relatively easy to grasp what was happening, without the need for measurement of some kind.

Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs)

But because you are also moving, the process becomes more difficult. Rule 7 stresses the need to check continually that no risk of collision exists, to eliminate any doubt that it does and to guard against taking action based on less than adequate information. The textbook method of assessing collision-risk on any vessel, is to take a bearing of any approaching vessel using a compass.

If the bearing remains constant, there is a risk of collision and action must therefore be taken. Where accurate use of a compass is difficult, this technique is surprisingly effective, whatever its detractors say.

It can be seen that Rule 7 makes compulsory, the carrying of equipment suitable for taking compass bearings.

Radar is not a requirement under the collision regulations, but all vessels fitted with a set, which is operational, should use it at long range to obtain early warning of other vessels in the area.

The operator is also required to assess on screen, whether a collision risk exists.

This means that you should always radar plot any detected contacts in order to determine their true course and speed as well as determining any risk of collision. The effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until the other vessel is finally passed and clear.

Having established that there is a risk of collision, hopefully while you are still a good way from the other vessel, you will determine what action is required if you are the give-way vessel. Course and speed changes must be such that they are obvious, both visually and on radar. Most of the well-documented collisions between commercial ships have come about because corrective action was only slight and could not be detected, until it was too late.

During daylight, a course change, which brings the sun from one side of your vessel to the other, is very helpful in clearly showing the other vessel what you are doing.

To stop or slow right down with minimal bow wave is more obvious than just to drop the revolutions off the engine s. However, you must remember that on a large vessel, there is a lot of momentum and slowing down will not be readily apparent in the early stages and could, additionally, take an inordinately long time. For instance, a fully laden supertanker, travelling at 15 Knots and ringing Dead Slow on her engine s , may not show any appreciable difference in speed for at least two to three miles.

At night, the best change of heading to make, is one, which shows the watchkeeper on the other vessel, a different configuration of your own navigation lights. What is a safe distance? Ferries crossing the busy DoverStrait aim to miss other ships by at least 1nm, although they often pass much closer to small craft.

A ship moving at 20 knots covers 1nm every three minutes. As you can see, the further away you stay from other shipping, the better. Not only will all concerned be safer, but also your attendant wake will have much less effect, which is a courtesy if nothing else. Paragraph f usually causes concern in its interpretation. Very basically it may be explained as follows:- Paragraph i says that a vessel shall take early action to avoid impeding the passage of another vessel if it is one of the vessels required so to do.

Paragraph ii says that even if a risk of collision exists, if you are required not to impede the safe passage of another vessel you shall take action and at the same time ensure that whatever action you do take is in accordance with the Rules. Paragraph iii says that even if you are on a vessel whose passage should not be impeded, and another vessel gets in your way, at the end of the day, normal steering and sailing rules apply.

There is very little excuse for an OOW in the open sea, ever to find himself in a close-quarters, collision-risk situation.

The latter vessel may use the sound signal prescribed in Rule 34 d if in doubt as to the intention of the crossing vessel. The vessel to be overtaken shall, if in agreement, sound the appropriate signal prescribed in Rule 34 c ii , and take steps to permit safe passing.

If in doubt she may sound the signals prescribed in Rule 34 d. Rules 9 and 10 deal with the busiest waters you will find: narrow channels and the special Traffic Separation Schemes laid down, to bring order to congested and often constrained shipping lanes, their junctions and port approaches. To put it simply, stay as far as possible to the starboard side of the channel.

Small craft may and frequently do, obstruct the passage of larger vessels. You must remember that a very narrow channel for you may seem like a broad unobstructed expanse of water, for a small vessel or yacht. When deciding where to cross a narrow channel, or even when entering it, remember that you not only have Rule 9 d to consider, but also any local recommendations or bylaws which may be in place, governing where and when such manoeuvres should occur.

International Regulations For Preventing Collisions At Sea, 1972

This will normally be indicated in your nautical almanac, on a large-scale chart and, most usefully, on the harbour guides produced by port authorities.

Another, worthy of note, is the small craft channel on the western side of PortsmouthHarbour entrance. If a small vessel gets close under the bows of a vessel of m ft or more, it is likely to run it down and not even notice.

Many harbourmasters with a mixed jurisdiction of commercial and leisure users, are worried that a pilot or master will, sooner or later, try to take drastic action to avoid hitting careless small boats, which will cause a major shipping catastrophe. Measures shall be taken to ensure its all-round visibility. One of these lights or shapes shall be exhibited near the foremast head and one at each end of the fore yard. These lights or shapes indicate that it is dangerous for another vessel to approach within 1, metres 0.

Such signals are contained in Annex IV to these Regulations.

Lights for vessels constrained by their draught A vessel constrained by her draft may, in addition to the lights prescribed for power-driven vessels in Rule 23, exhibit where they can best be seen three all-round red lights in a vertical line, or a cylinder.

Lights for pilot vessels a A vessel engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit: at or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being white and the lower red; when underway, in addition, sidelights and a sternlight; when at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in subparagraph 1 , the light, lights, or shape prescribed in Rule 30 for vessels at anchor.

Lights for vessels anchored and aground A vessel at anchor must display an all-round white light or one black ball in the fore part and another all-round white light at or near the stern at a lower level than the light in the fore part. BUT if the vessel is less than 50 meters in length it may exhibit an all-round white light where it can best be seen instead of the lights foresaid. Lights for seaplanes Where it is impracticable for a seaplane or a WIG craft to exhibit lights and shapes of the characteristics or in the positions prescribed in the Rules of the Part she shall exhibit lights and shapes as closely similar in characteristics and position as is possible.

Part D — Sound and light signals[ edit ] Definitions of whistle short blast 1 second , and prolonged blast 4—6 seconds. Equipment Vessels 12 metres On many vessels, a horn serves the purpose of a whistle. Maneuvering and warning signals, using whistle or lights The signals are used when vessels are in sight of one another The Rules concerning shapes shall be complied with by day. The lights and shapes specified in these Rules shall comply with the provisions of Annex I to these Regulations.

RULE 21 - Definitions "Masthead light" means a white light placed over the fore and aft centreline of the vessel showing an unbroken light over an arc of the horizon of degrees and so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 22,5 degrees abaft the beam on either side of the vessel. In a vessel of less than 20 metres in length the sidelights may be combined in one lantern carried on the fore and aft centreline of the vessel.

RULE 22 - Visibility of lights The lights prescribed in these Rules shall have an intensity as specified in Section 8 of Annex I to these Regulations so as to be visible at the following minimum ranges stated in nautical miles : In vessels of 50 metres or more in length :- a masthead light, 6 miles; a sidelight, 3 miles; a towing light, 3 miles; a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 3 miles. In vessels of 12 metres or more in length but less than 50 metres in length :- a masthead light, 5 miles; except that where the length of the vessel is less than 20 metres, 3 miles; a sidelight, 2 miles; a towing light, 2 miles; a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles.

In vessels of less than 12 metres in length :- a masthead light, 2 miles; a sidelight, 1 mile; a towing light, 2 miles; a white, red, green or yellow all-round light, 2 miles. In inconspicuous, partly submerged vessels or objects being towed: a white all-round light, 3 miles. RULE 23 - Power-driven vessels underway A power-driven vessel underway shall exhibit :- a masthead light forward; a second masthead light abaft of and higher than the forward one; except that a vessel of less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such light but may do so; sidelights; a sternlight.

An air-cushion vessel when operating in the non-displacement mode shall, in addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph a of this Rule, exhibit an all-round flashing yellow light.

A power-driven vessel of less than 12 m in length may in lieu of the lights prescribed in paragraph a of this Rule exhibit an all-round white light and sidelights; ii. RULE 24 - Towing and pushing A power-driven vessel when towing shall exhibit :- instead of the light prescribed in Rule 23 a 1 , two masthead lights forward in a vertical line.

When the length of the tow, measuring from the stern of the towing vessel to the after end of the tow exceeds metres, three such lights in a vertical line; sidelights; a sternlight; a towing light in a vertical line above the sternlight; when the length of the tow exceeds metres a diamond shape where it can best be seen.

When a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit they shall regarded as a power-driven vessel and exhibit the lights prescribed in Rule A power-driven vessel when pushing ahead or towing alongside, except in the case of a composite unit, shall exhibit :- instead of the lights prescribed in Rule 23 a 1 , two masthead lights forward in a vertical line; sidelights; a sternlight.

A power-driven vessel to which paragraphs a and c of this Rule apply shall also comply with Rule 23 a 2. A vessel or object being towed other than those mentioned in paragraph g of this rule, shall exhibit :- sidelights; a sternlight; when the length of the tow exceeds metres, a diamond shape where it can best be seen.

Provided that any number of vessels being towed alongside or pushed in a group shall be lighted as one vessel. Where from any sufficient cause it is impracticable for a vessel not normally engaged in towing operations to display the lights prescribed in paragraph a or c of this Rule, such a vessel shall not be required to exhibit those lights when engaged in towing another vessel in distress or otherwise in need of assistance.

All possible measures shall be taken to indicate the nature of the relationship between the towing vessel and the vessel being towed as authourised by Rule 36, in particular by illuminating the towline. RULE 25 - Sailing vessels underway and vessels under oars A sailing vessel underway shall exhibit :- sidelights; a sternlight. In a sailing vessel of less than 20 metres in length the lights prescribed in paragraph a of this Rule may be combined in one lantern carried at or near the top of the mast where it can best be seen.

A sailing vessel underway may, in addition to the lights prescribed in paragraph a of this Rule, exhibit at or near the top of the mast, where they can best be seen, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower green, but these lights shall not be exhibited in conjunction with the combined lantern permitted by paragraph b of this Rule. A sailing vessel of less than seven metres in length shall, if practicable, exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraph a or b of this Rule, but if she does not, she shall have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.

A vessel under oars may exhibit the lights prescribed in this Rule for sailing vessels, but if she does not, she shall have ready at hand an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light which shall be exhibited in sufficient time to prevent collision.

A vessel proceeding under sail when also being propelled by machinery shall exhibit forward where it can best be seen a conical shape, apex downwards. RULE 26 - Fishing vessels A vessel engaged in fishing, whether underway or at anchor, shall exhibit only the lights and shapes prescribed in this Rule. A vessel when engaged in trawling, by which is meant the dragging through the water of a dredge net or other apparatus used as a fishing appliance, shall exhibit:- two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being green and the lower white, or a shape consisting of two cones with their apexes together in a vertical line one above the other; a vessel of less than 20 metres in length may instead of this shape exhibit a basket; a masthead light abaft of and higher than the all-round green light; a vessel of less than 50 metres in length shall not be obliged to exhibit such a light but may do so; when making way through the water in addition to the lights prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.

A vessel engaged in fishing, other than trawling, shall exhibit:- two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being red and the lower white, or a shape consisting of two cones with apexes together in a vertical line one above the other a vessel of less than 20 metres in length may instead of this shape exhibit a basket; when there is outlying gear extending more than metres horizontally from the vessel, an all-round white light or a cone apex upwards in the direction of the gear; when making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.

The additional signals described in Annex II to these Regulations apply to a vessel engaged in fishing in close proximity to other vessels engaged in fishing.

A vessel when not engaged in fishing shall not exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in this Rule, but only those prescribed for a vessel for her length. RULE 27 - Vessels not under command or restricted in their ability to manoeuvre A vessel not under command shall exhibit:- two all-round red lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen; two balls or similar shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen; when making way through the water, in addition to the lights prescribed in this paragraph, sidelights and a sternlight.

A vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, except a vessel engaged in minesweeping operations, shall exhibit:- three all-round lights in a vertical line where they can best be seen. The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and the middle light shall be white; three shapes in a vertical line where they can best be seen. The highest and lowest of these shapes shall be balls and the middle one a diamond; when making way through the water, a masthead light or lights, sidelights and sternlight in addition to the lights prescribed in subparagraph 1 ; when at anchor, in addition to the lights or shapes prescribed in subparagraphs 1 and 2 , the light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule A power-driven vessel engaged in a towing operation such as severely restricts her ability to manoeuvre shall, in addition to the lights or shapes prescribedin Rule 24 a , exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in subparagraph b i and ii of this Rule.

A vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations, when restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, shall exhibit the lights and shapes prescribed in subparagraphs b i ii and iii of this Rule and shall in addition, when an obstruction exists, exhibit:- two all-round red lights or two balls in a vertical line to indicate the side on which the obstruction exists; two all-round green lights or two diamonds in a vertical line to indicate the side on which another vessel may pass; when at anchor the lights or shapes prescribed in this paragraph instead of the lights or shape prescribed in Rule Whenever the size of a vessel engaged in diving operations makes it impracticable to exhibit the shapes prescribed in paragraph d of this Rule, the following shall be exhibited: three all-round lights in a vertical where they can best be seen.

The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and the middle light shall be white; a rigid replica of the International Code flag "A" not less than 1 metre in height.

International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea

Measures shall be taken to ensure all-round visibility. A vessel engaged in minesweeping operations shall in addition to the lights prescribed for a power-driven vessel in Rule 23 or to the lights or shape prescribed for a vessel at anchor in Rule 30 as appropriate, exhibit three all-round green lights or three balls.

One of these lights or shapes shall be exhibited near the foremast head and one at each end of the fore yard. These lights or shapes indicate that it is dangerous for another vessel to approach closer than metres astern or metres on either side of the mineclearance vessel.

Vessels of less than 12 metres in length, except those engaged in diving operations, shall not be required to exhibit the lights and shapes prescribed in this Rule. The signals prescribed in this Rule are not signals of vessels in distress and requiring assistance. Such signals are contained in Annex IV to these Regulations.

RULE 28 - Vessels constrained by their draught A vessel constrained by her draught may, in addition to the lights prescribed for power-driven vessels in Rule 23, exhibit where they can best be seen three all-round red lights in a vertical line, or a cylinder.

RULE 29 - Pilot vessels A vessel engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit:- at or near the masthead, two all-round lights in a vertical line, the upper being white and the lower red; when underway, in addition, sidelights and a sternlights; when at anchor, in addition to the lights prescribed in subparagraph i , the light, lights or shape prescribed in Rule 30 for vessels at anchor.

A pilot vessel when not engaged on pilotage duty shall exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed for a similar vessel of her length. RULE 30 - Anchored vessels and vessels aground A vessel at anchor shall exhibit where it can best be seen :- in the fore part, an all-round white light or one ball; at or near the stern and at a lower level than the light prescribed in subparagraph i , an all-round white light.

A vessel of less than 50 metres in length may exhibit an all-round white light where it can best be seen instead of the lights prescribed in paragraph a of this Rule.

A vessel at anchor may, and a vessel of metres and more in length shall, also use the available working or equivalent lights to illuminate her decks. A vessel aground shall exhibit the lights prescribed in paragraphs a or b of this Rule and in addition, where they can best be seen :- two all-round red lights in a vertical line; three balls in a vertical line.

A vessel of less than 7 metres in length, when at anchor or aground, not in or near a narrow channel, fairway or anchorage, or where other vessels normally navigate, shall not be required to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in paragraphs a , b or d of this Rule. A vessel of less than 12 metres in length, when aground, shall not be required to exhibit the lights or shapes prescribed in paragraphs d i and ii of this Rule. RULE 31 - Seaplanes Where it is impracticable for a seaplane to exhibit lights and shapes of the characteristics or in the positions prescribed in the Rules of this Part she shall exhibit lights and shapes as closely similar in characteristics and position as is possible.

The term "short blast" means a blast of about one second duration.Rule 30 d ii.

A vessel nearing a bend or an area of a channel or fairway where other vessels may be obscured by an intervening obstruction shall sound one prolonged blast.

Rule 21 gives definitions. RULE 24 - Towing and pushing A power-driven vessel when towing shall exhibit :- instead of the light prescribed in Rule 23 a 1 , two masthead lights forward in a vertical line. This enables a good watch to be kept in the sector represented by the arc of the starboard navigation light. When approaching another vessel from astern, you are deemed to be responsible for keeping clear of it, if your approach is within the degrees arc of her sternlight.

Always assume the worst and give plenty of sea room, allowing for sudden course or speed changes from the other vessel that can occur without any warning. But when used simply to keep a steady course, largely obviating the need for an eye on the compass, it enables more attention to be devoted to what is visible, as well as to other important instruments, such as the depth-sounder and engine gauges.

For instance, a fully laden supertanker, travelling at 15 Knots and ringing Dead Slow on her engine s , may not show any appreciable difference in speed for at least two to three miles.

The highest and lowest of these lights shall be red and the middle light shall be white; a rigid replica of the International Code flag "A" not less than 1 metre 3.